This innovative design maximized the use of powder metallurgy technology by simplifying part complexity in order to facilitate easy assembly. The tool needed to be able to securely grip the smooth inside surface of a plated pipe while withstanding the torque forces on the hex shaft caused from turning the train tool with a socket wrench. The two integral cams on the shaft create the action that forces the grippers into the pipe ID. The parts have a density of 6.9 g/cm³, an ultimate tensile strength >1,050 MPa, a yield strength >690 MPa, an elongation >2.0%, and a 30 HRC hardness. The parts are produced to net shape with two machined grooves for the circlips being the only secondary operations needed.
The innovative design maximizes the benefits of powder metallurgy technology while simplifying complexity for easy assembly with two circlips and two dowel pins. Additionally, this tool can be manufactured from recycled scrap iron and recycled if it is discarded.